Cross-Currents : VI. Individuation

Cross-Currents of Jungian Thought: An Annotated Bibliography

by Donald R. Dyer. (Shambhala Publications, 1991)

PART ONE : Chapter Six : Human Development and Individuation

The concept of individuation, a process of differentiation having as its goal the development of the unique individual personality, plays a large role in Jung's psychology. It entails the recognition of both one's psychological strengths and limitations and is practically the same as the development of consciousness out of the original identity with the primordial unconscious state.

The process of individuation involves raising consciousness through the recognition of the operation of archetypes, including the archetype of the Self in its guiding function, as well as the conflict of opposites. It may encompass such methods or modes as synchronicity, astrology, I Ching, tarot, or yoga. Nearly 120 books are listed in this subject category, plus twenty-five others cross referenced from other subjects. As distinguished from the preceding chapter on the psyche, this topic deals primarily with consciousness, though dynamics of the unconscious are involved.

Following the six works by Jung, books by other authors are arranged chronologically in order to provide historical perspective. Nearly half of these were published after 1980.

The Integration of the Personality, by C. G. Jung. New York and Toronto: Farrar & Rinehart, 1939; London: Kegan Paul, 1940 (313, incl. 7-p. index, 1-p. bibl.).

Except for the initial essay on the meaning of individuation, which was written in English for this volume, the other five are lectures delivered by Jung at Eranos Meetings in Ascona, Switzerland, from 1932 to 1936. The introductory essay was rewritten and appears under the title of "Conscious, Unconscious, and Individuation" in the Collected Works (vol. 9, pt. 1). The longest essays are the ones on dream symbols of the process of individuation (109 pp.) and on the idea of redemption in alchemy (76 Others deal with the archetypes of the collective unconscious, development of the personality, and a case study in the process of individuation.

The Interpretation of Nature and the Psyche, by C. G. Jung and W. Pauli. (Ger.: Naturerklarung und Psyche. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1952/ Studien aus dem C. G. Jung Institut, IV.) New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series LI), 1955; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1955 (247+vii, incl. 5-p. index, 6 ill.).

Jung's long essay on "Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle" occupies two thirds of this collaborative work, with Nobel Prize physicist Wolfgang Pauli's "The Influence of Archetypal Ideas on the Scientific Theories of Kepler" occupying the remaining third. In considering ideas and experiences that had puzzled him for more than twenty years in regard to the applicability of the causal principle in psychology, Jung presents the concept of synchronicity to mean "the simultaneous occurrence of a certain psychic state with one or more external events which appear as meaningful parallels."

Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle, by C. G. Jung. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972 +p; Princeton, NJ.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1973p; London: Ark Paperbacks, 1985p (135 + vii, incl. 9-p. Index, 6-4 bibl., 3 illus)

Extracted from volume 8 of the Collected Works, this paperback includes the title essay, which originally appeared in The Interpretation of Nature and the Psyche (annotated above), along with an earlier essay, "On Synchronicity," that Jung gave as a lecture at the 1951 Eranos conference. Jung attributes the original stimulus for his idea of psychic synchronicity to his acquaintanceship with Einstein in Zurich between 1909 and 1913.

The Development of Personality, by C. G. Jung. New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Foundation), 1954; London: Routiedge & Kegan Paul, 1954; 1984p; Toronto, McClelland & Stewart, 1954; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1981p (CW 17) (223 + viii, inci. 19-p. index).

The title of this collection of eight essays comes from an essay that appears here and in The Integration of the Personality, and that originated as a 1932 lecture. Other contributions deal with the psychology of childhood and education (psychic conflicts in a child; the gifted child; child development and education; analytical psychology and education; and the significance of the unconscious in individual education). He regards the psychology of parents and of educators to be of great importance in a child's growth to consciousness. The final chapter is an analysis of marriage as a psychological relationship.

The Undiscovered Self, by C. G. Jung (Ger.: "Gegenwart und Zukunft," in Schweizer Monatshefte, supp. XXXVIA2, 1957.) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1958; 1974p; Boston and Toronto: Atlantic Monthly/Little, Brown, 1958; 1971p; New York: Mentor Books/New American Library, 1959p; 1974p (115 + viii).

Prompted by conversations with Carleton Smith, the National Arts Foundation director, Jung wrote this book at the age of eighty. He analyzes the topics of the plight of the individual in modern society; religion as the counterbalance to mass-mindedness; the position of the West on the question of religion; the individual's understanding of himself; the philosophical and the psychological approach to life; self-knowledge; and the meaning of self-knowledge. His concern for the survival of our civilization focuses on the quality of the individual, which requires understanding of the true nature of the individual human being and the gap between the conscious and unconscious aspects of the psyche.

The Undiscovered Self with "Symbols and the Interpretation of Dreams," byC. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1990 +p (166, incl. intro. by William McGuire).

Psychology and Education, by C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1969p (151 + vii, ind. 13-p. index).

Extracted from volume 17 (The Development of Personality ) of the Collected Works , this paperback contains four essays on psychic conflicts in a child (1909 lecture, revised 1946), child development and education (1923 lecture, 1928 publication), analytical psychology and education (1924 lectures, 1936 publication), and the gifted child (1942 lectures, 1943 publication). More than half of the volume consists of Jung's three lectures on analytical psychology and education, in which he gives case studies of childhood disturbances and emphasizes that such psychogenic disorders of childhood often are caused by an unsatisfactory psychological relationship between the parents.

The Inner World of Cbildbood: Study in Analytical Psychology, by Frances Wickes. New York and London: D. Appleton, 1927; New York: Appleton Century-Crofts, rev. 1930; 1955; rev. 1966; New York: Signet Books/New American Library, 1968p; London: Coventure, 1977p; Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Spectrum Books/Prentice-Hall, 1978p; Boston: Sigo Press, ed.3 1988 p (3 04 + xxiii, incl. 9-p. index, 7-p. intro. by Jung).

From many years of experience in child psychology, Wickes gives, as Jung says in the introduction, a "true picture of the difficulties that actually occur in the upbringing of children." Within a framework of analytical psychology, she discusses the topics of the influence of parental difficulties upon the unconscious of the child; three illustrations of the power of the image projected by a parent; early relationships; adolescence; the acceptance of consciousness; psychological types as a key to problems; imaginary companions; fear; sex; dreams; and a correlation of dreams and fantasy.

The Inner World of Man, by Frances G. Wickes. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1938; New York: Henry Holt, repr. 1948; Toronto: Oxford U. Press, 1948; London: Methuen, 1950; New York: Frederick Unger, 1959; Boston: Sigo Press, ed.2 1988 +p (313, incl. 32 pp. of 79 drawings and paintings).

Drawing upon some twenty years of analytic practice, Wickes illustrates the concepts of jung's analytical psychology through the workings of the unconscious in the apparently ordinary human life. She discusses the inner world and the appearance of images; parental images; ego; persona; shadow; anima; ammus; the self; dreams of mother and anima; dream analysis in later life; fantasy; and visions. She illustrates her ideas by means of numerous drawings and paintings that she feels reflect the inner world.

Paracelsus: Selected Writings, edited by Jolande Jacobi. (Ger.: Theophrastus Paracelsus: Lebendiges Erbe. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1942.) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1951; ed.2 1958; New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series XXVIII), 1951; ed.2 1958; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, ed.2 1988p (347, incl. 9-p. bibl., 10-p. key to sources, 21-p. gloss., 148 illus., 2-p. foreword by Jung).

Paracelsus (c. 1494-1541), a Swiss physician and alchemist about whom Jung was invited to deliver two addresses at the 1941 Paracelsus Festival in Einsiedeln, is presented in this book by Jacobi as a solitary genius of "luminous inner unity." After presenting a brief description of his life and work, she selects essential and permanently relevant features of his contributions under the headings of man and the related world; man and his body; man and works; man and ethics; man and spirit; and man and fate; and ends with God as the eternal light.

Children as Individuals, by Michael Fordham. (Orig. title: The Life of Childhood: A Contribution to Analytical Psychology. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1944.) London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1969; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1970 (233, ind. 9-p. index, 9-p. bibl, 11 illus.).

During the quarter-century between his introduction of child psychology to analytical psychologists and the new edition of this book, Fordham noted a change in the acceptance of analytical psychotherapy with children. Based on Jung's work but drawn largely from Fordham's own experience, this work analyzes children's play, dreams, and pictures, along with the family and the social setting, and sees them as basic factors in the application of the theory of archetypes and the ego to the processes of growth during childhood.

Creation Continues: A Psycbological Interpretation of the Gospel of Matthew, by Fritz Kunkel. New York: Charles Scribner's, 1947; Waco, Tex.: Word Books, rev. by Elizabeth Kunkel and Ruth Spafford Morris, 1973p; New York and Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1987p (286, incl. 3-p. bibl., 5-p. life of Kunkel, 3-p. intro. by John Sanford for 1987 ed.).

Kunkel, attempting to integrate the psychologies of Alfred Adler and Jung, presents Matthew's gospel from a psychological point of view, trying to understand the effect the image of jesus' personality had on his disciples and - through Matthew on ourselves." He aims to stimulate individual, genuine religions discoveries, and he urges "dynamic reading- as the "mobilization of all the conflicting forces in the reader's soul." After the prelude (Matthew and the evolution of consciousness), he analyzes the story under the headings of the gate; the chart of initiation (sermon on the mount); the way; the crossroads; the new way; the new chart; and the new gate (inner gate, outer gate, and beyond the gate).

The Choice Is Always Ours: The Classical Anthology on the Spiritual Way, edited by Dorothy Berkley Phillips, Elizabeth Boyden Howes, and Lucille M. Nixon. (Orig. subtitle: An Anthology on the Religious Way. New York: Richard Smith, 1948; New York and Evanston, Ill.: Harper & Row, rev. and enlarged edn. 1960.) Wheaton Ill.: Re Quest Books/Pyramid Publications for Theosophical Publishing House by arrangement with Harper & Row, rev. and abridged, 1975p; San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989p (493, incl. 4-P. index of authors, 15-p. subject index, 5-p. bibi.).

With its central theme of "the Way to ultimate meaning," this anthology of writings chosen from psychological, religious, philosophical, poetical, and biographical sources is comprised of short contributions by more than 180 authors. It is dedicated to Jung, Kunkel, Henry Sharman, and Sheila Moon. The largest number of excerpts are from Jung (21), Kunkel (15), and jesus (15). Other authors include thirteen whose books are in this annotated bibliography. As a mosaic of human insight, the anthology moves from the Way (searching and finding, implications, and progression) to techniques (prayer and meditation, psychotherapy, fellowship, and action) and outcomes (inward renewal and outward creativity).

The Hero with a Thousand Faces, by Joseph Campbell. New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series XVII), 1949; London: George Allen & Unwin, 1950; Cleveland: World, 1956; New York: Meridian Books, 1956p; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, ed.2 1968; 1972p; 1990p; London: Sphere Books, 1975p; London: Paladin Books/Grafton Books, 1988p (416 + xxiii, incl. 24-p. index, 45 illus.).

As reflected in the title, Campbell's concern is with a composite hero, who may be considered an archetypal figure in folklore and religion as well as a symbol of one's own eternal struggle for identity. He focuses more on the similarities than the differences among numerous mythologies and religions. He talks first about the "monomyth" in relation to myth and dream, tragedy and comedy, the hero and the god, and the world navel. Then he interprets the adventure of the hero in terms of departure, initiation, and return, and he analyzes the cosmogonic cycle which involves emanations, virgin birth, transformations of the hero, and dissolutions. He also discusses the relation of myth to society and the hero today.

The Origins and History of Consciousness, by Erich Neumann. (Ger.: Ursprungsgeschicbte des Bewusstseins. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1949.) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1954, 1982p; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1954; New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series XLII), 1954; New York: Torchbook/Harper & Row, 1962p; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/ Bollingen, 1970 +p (493 + xxiv, incl. 3 1 -p. index, 14-p. bibl., 31 illus., 2-p. foreword by Jung).

Applying the analytical psychology of Jung to his study of the origin and development of personality, Neumann focuses primarily on internal, psychic, and archetypal factors rather than external factors. He approaches the subject first by a study of the mythological stages in the evolution of consciousness, utilizing the creation myth and the hero myth. Then he ondines the psychological states in the development of personality~from original unity to the separation of the systems and to the balance and crisis of consciousness. He also examines centroversion and the stages of life.

The I Ching, or Book of Changes, translated by Richard Wilhelm. New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series XIX:2), 1950; ed.2 1961; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1950; London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1951; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, ed.2 1965; ed.3 1968; 1983p; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, ed.3 1967; Toronto: Saunders, ed.3 1968; London: Arkana/Penguin Books, 1988p (740 + lxii, incl. 9 p. gen. index, 2-p. hexagram index, 19-p. foreword by Jung).

Considering the influence that the Book of Changes has had in China for 3,000 years and the interest that it is evoking in Western civilization, Sinologist Wilhelm put the technique of the oracle into practice and interested Jung in this singular book. Jung used it for more than thirty years because it seemed to him to be of "uncommon significance as a method of exploring the unconscious." Among his remarks in the long foreword, Jung states that the I Ching insists on self-knowledge throughout; it is appropriate only for thoughtful, reflective persons. He notes that what Westerners call coincidence seems to bc the chief concern of the Chinese mind rather than causality; and Jung relates this to his synchronicity principle, which considers some coincidences of events as meaning something more than mere chance.

Journey into Self. An Interpretation of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, by M. Esther Harding. London and New York: Longmans, Green, 1956; London: Vision, 1958; New York: David McKay, 1963 (301 pp.).

Harding offers this psychological interpretation of Bunyan's classic as an expression of the search for wholeness that confronts every individual through archetypal patterns. She focuses on the inner region of subjective experience and uses the allegory of the Pilgrim's quest to demonstrate that it is not only the psychically sick who need to be reunited with the realm of the inner life but that all of us have this need. Her chapters of the journey are entitled "After the Slough of Despond," "From the House of the Interpreter to the Cross," "The Valley of Humiliation," "Christian Finds a Friend," "The Adventures of Christian and Hopeful," and "The journey Nears Its End," followed by an interpretation of the pilgrimage in modern psychological terms.

Human Relationships: In the Family, in Friendship, in Love, by Eleanor Bertine. (Ger.: Menschliche Beziehungen: Eine psychologische Studie. Zurich: Rhein Verlag, 1957.) New York and London: Longmans, Green, 1958; New York: David McKay, 1963 (237 + vii, inci. 2-p. foreword by Jung).

Drawing on thirty-five years of working in the analytic consulting room, Bertine uses her training with Jung to analyze relationships between the individual and members of the family, friends, the group, the opposite sex, and the marriage partner. Her years of experience provided "the opportunity to follow the events over a long period of time to sec how the stories end."

Depth Psychology and Modern Man: A New View of the Magnitude of Human Personality, Its Dimensions and Resources, by Ira Progoff. New York: Julian Press, 1959; ed.2 1969; New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973p (277 + xii).

Progoff aims to develop techniques and disciplines "for evoking the potentials of personality" through programs for inner growth as formulated in his Intensive journal, a specially structured psychological workbook. His Il new view of the magnitude of human personality" traces the history of depth psychology in the context of the transformation of the unconscious toward the wholeness of the individual. As models of modern men he prescrits Jan Smuts (natural evolution), Edmund Sinnott (biology), Wolfgang Pauli (physics), Herbert Read (art and civilization), Jacob Bronowski (science and art), and Friedrich Kekul? (chemistry), emphasizing their creative work and drawing upon jung's depth psychology that provides an affirmatively and scientifically grounded conception of human life that can bc used constructively.

History and Myth: The World Around Us and the World Within, by David Cox. London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1961 (166 + xv).

Discussing the individual's "need for assurance about the connection between the inner and outer worlds," Cox states that the Christian mythos includes all the great themes of all myths and thereby expresses the deepest facts about the psyche; therefore, the confluence of myth and history in the life of jesus can provide the individual with the assurance needed for an effective life. He analyzes the individual's inner world from the points of view of myth and ritual, myth and the mind, and jung's model of the psyche.

The Living Symbol: A Case Study in the Process of Individuation, by Gerhard Adler. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1961; New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series LXIII), 1961 (473 + xii, incl. 21-p. index, 16-p. bibl., 32 illus.).

In presenting a detailed study of a case of claustrophobia, Adler aims to show clearly the stages of the individuation process which Jung has described. Considered to be a typical case of neurosis and its analytical treatment, the basic pattern of the integrative process is revealed to show the inner logic and meaningfulness with which unconscious imagery unfolds. Adler analyzes the creative function of the unconscious as revealing the wealth and vitality of symbols from which gradually emerges a pattern of inner order. The material comprises more than one hundred fifty dreams, along with thirty-two paintings and drawings by the patient to illustrate the symbolism of dreams associated with the process of integration.

The Child: Structure and Dynamics of the Nascent Personality, by Erich Neumann. (Ger.: Das Kind: Struktur und Dynamik der werdenden Pers?nlichkeit. Zurich: Rhein Verlag, 1963.) London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1973; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1973; New York: Colophon Book/Harper & Row, 1976p; London: Maresfield Lib./H. Karnac, 1988p; Boston: Shambhala, 1990p (221, incl. 5-p. index, 7-p. ref. notes).

In describing and analyzing the structure and dynamics of the emerging personality of the child, Neumann begins with a discussion of the primal relationship of child to mother in terms of psychic nourishment and the need for formation of a positive integral ego that is able to assimilate and integrate even negative or unpleasant qualities of both outer and inner worIds. The development of the child's ego-Self relationship results in disturbances of the primal relationship, whose nature and consequences Neumann presents in a context of transition from the psychological matriarchate to the psychological patriarchate. Neumann did not live to complete the work. If he had, it would have included a discussion of the stage of development at which the female child requires separate treatment.

The Inner World of Choice, by Frances G. Wickes. New York: Harper & Row, 1963; Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall by arrangement with the C. G. Jung Institute of San Francisco, 1976p; London: Coventure, 1977p; Boston: Sigo Press, ed.3 1988 +p (318 + xxii, incl. 6-p. bibl.).

Basing this work on seminars given during 1954-55 at the C. G. Jung Institute in Zurich, Wickes enlarged the material at Jung's request and presents the thesis that "modern man is unaware of the myth that lives itself within him, of the image, often invisible, that dynamically impels him toward choice." She studies the mysterious relationship of consciousness to the unconscious as it reveals a dynamic power which acts to enlarge and enrich the growing ego consciousness through integration of the non-ego unconscious forces. She discusses the gift of choice of consciousness; early choices of good and evil; enemies of choice; opposition and interplay; the masculine and feminine principles; woman in man and man in woman; interplay and relatedness; journey toward wholeness; and faith beyond fear.

The Symbolic and the Real: A New Psychological Approach to the Fuller Experience of Personal Existence, by Ira Progoff. New York: Julian Press, 1963; New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973p; London: Coventure, 1977 +p; Magnolia, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1983 (234 + xv, incl. 8-p. bibl.).

In his aim to expand and stimulate from deep psychic levels the processof growth that is inherent in everyone, Progoff presents the principle and methodology of psyche-evoking in contrast to psychoanalysis. Psyche-evoking is directed toward "drawing forth the potentials of personality," something that Progoff points out is the essence of the Socratic method. His non-analytic approach to the depth dimension seeks to elicit energy and guidance from symbols by using such procedures as his "Twilight Imagining."

The Wisdom of the Serpent: The Myths of Death, Rebirth and Resurrection, by Joseph L. Henderson and Maud Oakes. New York: George Braziller, 1963; Toronto: Ambassador, 1963; New York: Collier, 1963p; New York: Collier/ Macmillan, 1971p; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press, 1990p (262 + xxiv, incl. 8-p. index, 7-p. bibl., 50 illus.).

Two-thirds of the text of this joint work is comprised of Oakes's treatment of the myths of death, rebirth, and resurrection, with death and rebirth being viewed as cosmic patterns and cycles of nature, along with an analysis of initiation as a spiritual education and psychic liberation.Jungian analyst Henderson, following his introductory comments on the fear of death, also deals with death and rebirth (the dance of Shiva) and cycles of nature (the descent of Innana), as well as with initiation (the magic flight). He then concludes with the topic of resurrection as rebirth in the process of individuation, presenting this perennial problem in terms of observation and analysis of patients' dreams and fantasies.

The "I" and the "Not-I": A Study in the Development of Consciousness, by M. Esther Harding. New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series LXXIX), 1965; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1970; 1973p (244 + x, incl. 14-p. index, 6-p. bibl., 6 illus.).

This work is based on lectures given in St. Louis, San Francisco, and New York in 1963. In it, Harding introduces Jung's concept of ego ("I") development and his theory of personality structure, which includes both the personal part of the unconscious as well as the collective unconscious. She explores the stages by which consciousness develops, including identification with family, projections onto persons of the same sex, and projections onto persons of the opposite sex, along with an analysis of anima and animus and of the "Not-I" of the inner world that includes archetypal figures that stimulate both instinctual and spiritual experiences.

The Way of Individuation, by Jolande Jacobi. (Ger.: Der Weg zur Individuation. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1965.) London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1967; New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1967; New York: Meridian Books/New American Library, 1983p (177 + ix, incl. 7-p. index, 7-p. bibl.).

Jacobi signalizes the way of individuation as the keystone which distinguishes Jung's psychology from other schools. Understanding it as the growing self-awareness of the individual and society, she contrasts the difference between the natural growing process and that which is deepened by analytical insights that are experienced consciously. She defines the two main phases of the individuation process (first and second halves of life) and their stages and discusses the relations of ego to Self and the "central, archetypal, structural elements of the psyche." Her analysis of conscious realization and integration of potentialities in the individual leads to a discussion of the religions function of the psyche and the conscience as related to the dual nature of human beings.

Masks of the Soul, by Jolande Jacobi. (Ger.: Die Seelenmaske: Einblicke in die Psychologie des Alltags. Olten and Freiburg im Breisgau, Switzerlarid: Walter Veriag, 1967.) Grand Rapids, Mich.: William Eerdrnans, 1976p; London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1976; 1977p (94 pp.).

Jacobi intends the four essays as "only spotlights to illumine some of the dark corners of the soul" and thereby to be used as a guide to everyday life. In her essays on "What is Psychology For?," "Man in His Mask" (persona mediating inner and outer worlds), "People without Love," and "Man between Good and Evil," she hopes, as a result of her long experience as a Jungian analyst, to stimulate reflection and self-understanding by many who feel lost in life and fail to understand themselves and others.

The Myth of Meaning in the Work of C. G. Jung, by Aniela Jaffé. (Ger.: Der Mythus vom Sinn im Werk von C. G. Jung. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1967.) London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1970; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1971; New York and Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1975p; Zurich: Daimon Verlag, 1984p (186, incl. 8-p. bibl., 20-p. ref. notes).

Jaffé's aim is to show what kind of "meaning" Jung contrasted with the "meaninglessness of life" that he noted in about one-third of his cases who were not suffering from any clinically definable neurosis and that in most instances went hand in hand with a sense of religious emptiness. Jaff? presents and interprets jung's theories of the unconscious and the archetypes; the hidden reality (the unconscious below consciousness); inner experience; individuation; good and evil; Answer to Job; individuation of mankind; man in the work of redemption; the one reality (inner unity); and the individual. She ends with a discussion of Jung's myth of meaning as the myth of consciousness that values the unconscious and its creative power.

Thresbolds of Initiation, by Joseph L. Henderson. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan U. Press, 1967; 1979p (260 + ix, incl. 8- p. index, 8-p. bibl., 11-p. ref. notes).

Basing his study on Jung's theory of archetypes, and in particular on the archetype of initiation, Henderson presents this work after thirty years of testing the theory in his analytical practice. Considering archetypes as predictable patterns of conditioning from within that bring about certain basic changes, he traces parallels between individual psychological self-searching and rites which marked initiation in times past. His topics include the uninitiated; return of the mother; remaking a man; the trial by strength; the rite of vision; thresholds of initiation; initiation and the principle of ego-development in adolescence; and initiation in the process of individuation.

The Original Tarot and You, by Richard Roberts. (Orig. title: Tarot and You. Hastings on-Hudson, N.Y.: Morgan & Morgan, 1971.) San Anselmo, Calif.: Vernal Equinox Press, 1987p*(296 + xiv, incl. 20 illus.).

Aiming to demonstrate that tarot cards can be a valuable psychological tool for self knowledge and self - transformation, Roberts has created a "Jungian spread," a layout of cards whose reading reveals past patterns and future probabilities as well as present moment realities that demonstrate conscious-unconscious relationships. He interprets the Self as the central and organizing entity of the psyche that, during the process of shuffling the cards, may be organizing them from the unconscious. He uses the free association method of psychology, in which the meaning is created by the individual. Four case examples of readings using the Jungian spread cover seventy-two pages, by far the longest treatment of the seven methods presented. (The other methods are the ancient Celtic method, the magic seven spread, the wish spread, the pyramid spread, the threc sevens, and the yes-no spread.)

Striving towards Wholeness, by Barbara Hannah. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1971; Toronto: Longmans, Green Canada, 1971; London: Allen & Unwin, 1973; Boston: Sigo Press, 1987 +P (316 + xiv, incl. 4-p. bibl., 5-p. foreword by Vernon Brooks in 1987 edn.).

Stimulated by the interest shown in her first lecture in 1931 on the writings of the Bront? sisters and many lectures and seminars given subsequently on the Bront?s and several other writers, Hannah eventually wrote this book to illustrate the importance of the individuation process. She points out that the process is unusually clear in the Bront?s' writings and was visible in their lives as well. Following two introductory chapters in which she uses jungian theory to set up the psychological terms of her theme, Hannah then illustrates the unconscious attempt of individuals to regain the wholeness of human nature, using as examples the work of Stevenson (Jekyll andHyde) Mary Webb (Precious Bane), and the Bront? children (Jane Eyre, Villette, Agnes Grey, Wildfell Hall, Wuthering Heights). Her study of individuation in literature characterizes the urge toward wholeness as an attempt to integrate both negative and positive elements of the individual psyche.

Ego and Archetype: Individuation and the Religious Function of the Psyche, by Edward F. Edinger. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G.Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1972; Harmondsworth and New York: Pelican/Penguin Books, 1973p (304 + xv, incl. 8-p. index, 69 illus.).

Edinger's theme is the conscious encounter between the ego and archetypal symbols of the collective unconscious in which the ego becomes increasingly aware of its dependence upon and its origin from the archetypal psyche. He presents this asJung's process of individuation and views it in the context of the religious function of the psyche with the goal being the reconciliation of science and religion. In analyzing the process of individuation, Edinger defines the stages of development as the inflated ego, the alienated ego, and the encounter with the Self; and he interprets individuation as being the search for meaning as a way of life. In this way he sees Christ as a paradigm of the individuating ego. He concludes with a discussion of the way the blood of Christ and the philosopher's stone are symbols of the goal of individuation.

The Choicemaker, by Elizabeth Boyden Howes and Sheila Moon. (Orig. title: Man, the Choicemaker. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1973.) Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books/Theosophical Publishing House, 1977p (221, incl. 3-p. index, 8-p. ref. notes).

From each one's experience of more than twenty-five years as analytical psychotherapists in the Jungian tradition and as seminar leaders in the combined fields of religion, analytical psychology, art, and mythology, Howes and Moon evolved a new integration of religion and depth psychology. In considering the eternal question "Man, where art thou? Where are you going?," they examine the (sometimes difficult) need to confront the inner world and search for wholeness, as well as the need to see egocentricities in concrete ways. They also describe techniques for self-discovery in the process of making choices, such as hearing the body's truth, dialoguing between the inner self and the outer self, withdrawing projections, analyzing dreams, meditation, and prayer.

Jung, Synchronicity, and Human Destiny: C. G. jung's Theory of Meaning/?l Coincidence, by Ira Progoff. (Orig. subtitle: Noncausal Dimensions of Human Experience, New York: Julian Press, 1973; New York: Dialogue House, 1973p; New York: Delta/Dell Publ. Co., 1975p.) New York: Julian Press, 1987p (176, incl. 4-p. bibl., 3 illus.).

The starting point of Progoff's inquiry is that, if one considers the complexity of an infinite universe, basic levels of understanding can be achieved by a number of interpretive principles. He examines in a large, philosophical perspective Jung's hypothesis of the principle of synchronicity as an acausal relationship that complements the laws of causality by including nonphysical as well as physical phenomena that have noncausal but meaningful relationships. He associates Jung's work with that of Teilhard de Chardin, Leibniz, and Einstein.

The Man Who Wrestled with God: Light from the Old Testament on the Psychology of Individuation, by John A. Sanford. King of Prussia, Perm.: Religious Publishing Co., 1974; New York and Ramsey, N.J.: Paulist Press, 198 1p; rev. 1987p (140 + iii, incl. 5- p. secular index, 3-p. biblical index).

By presenting and analyzing four ancient, archetypal stories from the Old Testament, Sanford illustrates the unfolding of psychological development and spiritual awareness as examples of Jung's principle of individuation, the process of personal growth toward wholeness. The first, which lends itself to the title of the book, is the story of Jacob's cunning, and his suffering, transformation, and reconciliation; the second is of Joseph's arrogance, and his suffering, transformation, and reconciliation; the third is of Moses' killing of the Egyptian, and his exile and transformation to reluctant hero; and the fourth is an interpretation of Adam and Eve in their painful process of psychological development. Appended is a summary of the psychologies of Jung and of Fritz Kunkel, in which Sanford elaborates Jung's concept of individuation and fills in gaps from Kunkel's thinking.

Consciousness, by C. A. Meier. (Ger.: Bewusstsein, 1975?.) Boston: Sigo Press, 1989; 1990p (The Psycbology of C. G. Jung, vol. 3) (128 + x, inci. 6-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 4-p. ref. notes, 15 illus.).

Observing that there is no publication that compiles Jung's views on consciousness, Meier here undertakes the task. He begins with a discussion of the paradox that one's ego observes one's own consciousness as subject and object and then proceeds in the first part to present the phenomenology of consciousness (as a system; interaction with both external world and internal world; limitation of time; tension of attentiveness; narrowness; memory), the structure and dynamics of consciousness, and the localization of the actual seat of the conscious. In the second part bc deals with adaptive mechanisms and basic functions of consciousness, using Jung's major work on psychological types as a "compass" orientating the four functions and two attitudes and at the same time bringing in the role of the compensatory function and the attitude of the unconscious.

Astrology and the Modern Psycbe: An Astrologer Looks at Deptb Psychology, by Dane Rudhyar. Davis, Calif.: CRCS Publications, 1976p (182, 6 illus., incl. birth charts of Freud, Adler, Jung, and Kunkel).

Rudhyar's interest in "astro-psychology" began in 1932 with a reading of Wilhelm's The Secret of the Golden Flower (containing Jung's commentary). His aim in this book is to bring deeper psychological insights to people attracted to the field of astrology, devoting the first part to depth psychology's pioneers (Freud, Adler, and Jung), for whom he provides birth charts. His emphasis on Jung involves Jung's positive approach to the unconscious, his approach to personality and the astrological way to self-realization, and the use of anima and animus in Jungian analysis with reference to the moon symbol in astrology. He also discusses Kunkel and "we-psychology," Moreno and psychodrama, Assagioli and psychosynthesis, the Self, the astro-psychological approach to self education and self-realization, astrology psychoanalyzed, mysteries of sleep and dreams, the great turning points in human life, and meeting crises successfully.

Saturn: A New Look at an Old Devil, by Liz Greene. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1976p; London: Aquarian Publications, 1977p (196, incl. 1 illus.).

Jungian analyst and astrologer Greene analyzes the planet Saturn as a symbol of the psychic process, in which the experiences of pain, restriction, discipline, self-control, tact, thrift, and caution may lead to greater consciousness and fulfillment. She believes that Saturn symbolizes an initiator'of the psychic process that brings about an inner experience of completeness within the individual.

Storming Eastern Temples: A Psychological Exploration of Yoga, by Lucindi Frances Mooney. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books/Theosophical Publishing House, 1976 + p (212, inci. 4-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 14-p. ref. notes).

Drawing upon Jung's interest in Eastern psychology, Mooney is "storming Eastern temples" to get beyond our Western shadow and heritage and to fathom the nature of self beyond ego-consciousness; and she characterizes the circumambulating, instinctive movement of the individual to self as "exodus" to the "inner East," which symbolizes renewal, rebirth, and new beginning. She discusses the topics of dimensions of self (a fantastic invasion) and ego (island of consciousness and breakdown of values); shadow (departure and gateway to the abyss); identification; projection; human relationships; collective shadow; collective unconscious and archetypes; syzygy; chthonic mother/wise old man; the movement to the East (yoga as an inner happening externalized); individuation (returning to the Self); and reordering a new direction (synchronicity and parapsychology).

Individuation in Fairy Tales, by Marie-Louise von Franz. Zurich: Spring Publications for the Analytical Psychology Club of New York, 1977; Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982p (Seminar Series, 12); Boston & London: Shambhala Publications, rev. edn. 1990 p (A C. G. Jung Foundation Book) (230 + vii, incl. 8-p. index, 3-p. ref. notes).

Jung's theory of the process of individuation is illustrated by von Franz in a series of seminars given at the Jung Institute of Zurich, in which she uses six fairy tales to interpret the symbolization of the bird motif. Two-thirds of the book is devoted to two tales, namely, "The White Parrot," a Spanish tale whose central motif is borrowed from the Orient, and "The Secret of the Bath B?dgerd" (castle of nothingness), a Persian fairytale also with parrot symbolization. Von Franz also analyzes four short tales with bird motifs that, as in the longer tales, mirror typical phases in the individuation process.

Relating: An Astrological Guide to Living with Others on a Small Planet, by Liz Greene. Wellingborough: Aquarian/Thorsons, 1977; 1986p; Wellington, N.Z.: Reed, 1978; York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1978p; ed.2 1978p (294, incl. 5-p. index, 4-p. bibi.).

Citing jung's courage to learn astrology and use it in his research on the psyche, Greene examines the ways in which people relate to one another in her analysis of the joint explorations of the ancient wisdom of astrology and the modern insights of depth psychology. She discusses the topics of the language of the unconscious; the planetary map of individual potential; psychological types related to the elements of air, water, earth, and fire; Beauty and the Beast (the shadow); the inner partner (animus and anima); the sex life of the psyche; the inner experience of archetypal parents; the infallible inner clock (progressions and transits); and relating in the Aquarian Age.

Astro-Psychology: Astrological Symbolism and the Human Psyche, by Karen Hamaker-Zontag. (Dutch: Amsterdam: W. N. Schors, 1978.) Wellingborough: Aquarian Press, 1980p; New York. Samuel Weiser, 1980p; York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1990p as Astrological Psychology. (224, incl. 2-p. bibl., 25 illus.).

Recognizing the similarity of many of Jung's concepts to the more symbolic idiom of astrology, Hamaker- Zontag's aim is to place Jungian psychology within an astrological framework. She examines the traditional wisdom of astrology in relation to Jung's psychology by analyzing quadruplicities as forms of psychic energy, the four elements as psychological types, the zodiac as a path of life, the structure of the houses as the psychic structure of the individual, and planets as symbols of archetypal psychic drives. She views psychic growth from a Jungian perspective as it relates to astrological symbolism.

Pilgrimage to the Rebirth, by Erlo van Waveren. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1978p (126, incl. 1-p. ref. notes, 3-p. foreword by the author's wife, Ann van Waveren).

In this tribute to Jung, van Waveren shares entries from his journal of his travels on the road to self-awareness in which he becomes acquainted with the Self. Affirming that the inner journey is an ancient road, he experiences his dreams as intimate encounters that lead to transformation and a new consciousness. As van Waveren draws upon his inner signposts, he asserts that his awareness of the ancestral psychic components compels him to write "a song of opposites" in balance.

Projection and Re-Collection in jungian Psychology: Reflections of the Soul, by Marie Louise von Franz. (Ger.: Spiegelungen der Seele: Projektion und innere Sammlung. Stuttgart: Kreuz Verlag, 1978.) LaSalle, 111. and London: Open Court Publishing Co., 1980, 1985p (253 + ix, inci. 13-p. index, 8-p. bibi., 7 illus.) (Reality of the Psyche Series).

Starting with Jungs concept of projection as an unconscious transfer of one's own subjective psychic elements onto an external object or person, von Franz discusses the five stages involved in the withdrawal of projections. This is followed by a discussion of the withdrawal of projections in ancient religious hermeneutics and of the expression of projection in modern science. She examines the resistance inherent in the withdrawal of a projection involving evil demons (in antiquity and Christianity), the great mediating daimons (good-evil spirits), and the inner companion (guardian spirit). She states that consciousness and inner wholeness, which clear away clouds of unconscious projections, are the result of common sense, reflection, and self-knowledge.

The River Within: The Search for God in Depth, by Christopher Bryant. London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1978p; Nashville: The Upper Room, 1983p (152 + viii).

Bryant's aim is to illuminate the Christian spiritual tradition and life using modern, mainly Jungian, psychology. He describes the course of the river "within" through the stages of life from infancy and childhood (needs and problems of infancy; infant roots of some personality disorders; tasks of childhood; growth of conscience), on to the age of uncertainty (crises of adolescence; the personality ideal; the religion of adolescents) and years of responsibility (tasks of adulthood; stages in adult life; resources of the gospel), to the journey's end when one achieves an integrated personality and growth in spiritual maturity by realizing God's presence through prayer, contemplation, and worship.

Elements and Crosses as the Basis of a Horoscope, by Karen Hamaker-Zontag. (Dutch: Amsterdam: W. N. Schors, 1979.) Wellingborough: Aquarian Press, 1984p; York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1984p. Jungian Symbolism and Astrology Series, vol. 1) (116, ind. 32 illus.).

In this handbook for astro-psychology based on comparisons between astrology and Jung's psychology, Hamaker- Zontag provides a basis for interpretation of horoscopes thar derives from the symbolism, background, and function of both elements and crosses in terms of activity and direction of psychic energy. Together the elements and crosses provide the foundation for the structure of personality. She also discusses personal planets within the divisions of element and cross, along with sample horoscopes.

The I Ching Workbook, by R. L. Wing. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1979p; London: Aquarian Press, 1983 (180, ind. 11 illus.).

The author comments on the excitement with which Jung came across Richard Wilhelm's translation of the I Ching (or Book of Changes) whose images, arranged into sixty-four hexagrams, represent what Jung called archetypes. Wing relates this tapestry of symbols to the union of human nature and cosmic order in the collective unconscious, characterizing the ritual of stopping time (change) by consulting the I Ching as an aligning of one's Self and one's consciousness with the universe. The workbook contains a brief explanation of the Book of Changes itself and how the oracle works in making an inquiry. Descriptions of the hexagrams comprise most of the book.

Tbe Individuated Hobbit: Jung, Tolkien, and tbe Arcbetypes of Middle-Earth, by Timothy R. O'Neill. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979; London: Thames Hudson, 1980 (200 + xv, inci. 16-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 14-p. gloss., 13 illus.).

In relating Tolkien's writings to Jung's personality theories, O'Neill discusses the themes of Self-realization through transforming archetypes and of personifying archetypes in the psyche. Following a brief description of the theory and construct of analytical psychology, he analyzes Tolkien's inventive ideas and the topics of Numenor lost (neurosis of Middle-earth); the individuated hobbit; "Frodos Dreme" (Frodo's dream); white lady, dark lord, and grey pilgrim; trickster, tree, and terminal man; Numenor regained (individuation of the West); and the relationship of archetype to allegory.

Return: Beyond tbe Self, by Thomas E. Parker. Saratoga, Calif.: Polestar Publications, 1979p (141 + iii).

From an early interest in the nature of the world and reality, through the study of physics and cosmology and, later, Jung's psychology, Parker has come to believe that the physical world and the psyche are intermeshed. His study and practice of the techniques of raja yoga and self-realization affirm this belief. Combining these experiences, he discusses the topics of developing a world view; the dilemma of life; the ego and the will (experiencing and overcoming duality); the illusion of separateness; the problem of evil; the purpose of pain; meaning (expansion of consciousness); the hidden body; the ladder of consciousness; the problem of balance; non-attachment; the process of becoming; and return (the path to joy).

The Tao of Psycbology: Synchronicity and tbe Self, by Jean Shinoda Bolen. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1979; 1982p; Hounslow: Wildwood, 1980p (111 + xiii, ind. 3-p. index, 5-p. bibl.).

The connection between the human psyche and external events, between inner and outer worlds, is a basic concept of Eastern thought. Because interconnectedness and totality are Bolen's subjects, she makes a circular journey around the theme by first describing what the Tao is ("what the dance is") and then discusses, synchronicity ("meaningful coincidence:" and the Self, followed by the topics of "the Agatha Christie approach to synchronicity"; Iike a waking dream"; significant meetings and the synchronistic matchmaker; synchronistic wisdom of the I Ching; parapsychological pieces of the synchronicity puzzle; Tao as path with heart; and the message of the Tao experience (-we are not alone").

Emergence: Essays on the Process of Individuation Through Sand Tray Therapy, Art Forms, and Dreams, by Jeannette Pruyn Reed. Albuquerque, N.M.: J.P.R. Publishers, 1980p (89 + x, incl. 3-p. bibl., 14 illus.).

The process of individuation is examined by Reed, who illustrates the power of the unconscious and potential transformation of individual lives through sand tray therapy, a method applicable to children and adults, which she describes as the experience in miniature of the quest for wholeness. She analyzes dreams in the sand, the sand tray as active imagination, myth and fairy tales in the sand tray, and symbols and archetypes in the sand. She illustrates the process with case studies and illustrations; and she also presents the process of emergence through art forms.

Jung and Tarot: An Archetypal Journey, by Sallie Nichols. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1980; York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1984p (392 + xv, incl. 7-p. ref. notes, 87 illus., 3-p intro. by Laurens van der Post).

Jung's archetypal approach, as understood by Nichols, is used to interpret the tarot, whose Major Arcana (trumps) are related to personal growth and Jung's concept of the individuation process. She relates the symbolism of the cards to a journey into one's own depths toward self-realization. Following brief introductory material on the origins and history of tarot and of Jung's archetypal~approach to symbolism, she presents detailed essays on each of the twenty-two cards, whose wisdorn can help solve personal problems and find creative answers to the universal questions that confront us all.

On Divination and Synchronicity: The Psychology of Meaningful Chance, by Marie Louise von Franz. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1980p (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 3) (123, incl. 5-p. index, 17 illus.).

Based on a series of lectures delivered at the Jung Institute of Zurich in 1969, this work by von Franz elucidates jung's principle of synchronicity with a focus on divination, a technique practiced in all primitive civilizations and in sanctuaries and churches. She examines, in terms of the psychological background of number and time, the mysterious dimensions of meaningful coincidences that have no apparent relation to cause and effect. She also explores the meaning of irrational methods of divining fate, such as I Ching, astrology, tarot cards, and palmistry.

Planetary Symbolism in the Horoscope, by Karen Hamaker-Zontag. (Dutch: Amsterdam: W. N. Schors, 1980) York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1985p Jungian Symbolism and Astrology Series, 2) (196, incl. 3 illus.).

Continuing with the series on jungian symbolism and astrology, Hamaker-Zontag considers the symbolism of the planets from a Jungian point of view. She introduces the planets in relation to stages in the history of human development and then presents the modes of planetary expression as well as the planets in relation to the elements of fire, earth, air, and water. Avoiding a collection of ready-made interpretations of the planets in the signs, she discusses the planets as symbols of the psyche and human motivation and as types of personal conduct and interpersonal relationships.

The Secret Raven: Conflict and Transformation in the Life of Franz Kafka, by Daryl L. Sharp. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1980p (Studies in jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 1) (128, ind. 4-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 8-p. ref. notes, 9 illus.).

Using fundamental concepts of jung's psychology, analyst Sharp examines conflict and transformation in Kafka's life first from a biographical point of view (work; women and marriage; family; two worlds) and then from a psychological view (conflict; chthonic or earthy shadow; provisional life and the feminine; transformation). In illuminating some of the psychological factors, he pays special attention to the compensatory significance of Kafka's dreams in analyzing Kafka the. man, with few references to his writings. He gives special attention to the psychology of the puer aeternus, the mother complex, the repressed shadow, and the provisional-life neurosis (the neurosis of the modern age).

Tarot Revelations, by Joseph Campbell and Richard Roberts. San Francisco: Alchemy Books, 1980p; San Anselmo, Calif.: Vernal Equinox Press, ed.2 1982; ed.3 1987p (294 + xiv, incl. 9-p. ref. notes, 37 illus., 8-p. intro. by Colin Wilson).

Campbell's participation involves a 5-page foreword in which he explains his interest in the tarot and an 18-page interpretation of the symbolism of the Marseilles Deck (pictorial cards allegorically representative of material forces, natural elements, virtues, and vices). Other than Wilson's introduction, the remainder of the book consists of Roberts's analysis of the symbolism of the deck, which draws not only on its background in esoteric, astrological, Gnostic, and alchemical traditions but also from jung's archetypology. He characterizes the tarot as a kind of Western Book of the Dead, an alchemical revelation of the spiral descent and ascent of Hermes/Mercurius following the traditional ladder of souls or stalirway of planets.

Border Crossings: Carlos Castaneda's Path to Knowledge, by Donald Lee Williams. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1981p (Studies in jungian Psychology by jungian Analysts, 8) (153, incl. 5-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 8-p. ref. notes, 9 illus.).

Interpreting the imagery of Castaneda's experience as apprentice to the shaman Don Juan by means of Jung's understanding of the unconscious,Williams analyzes the pursuit of experience and authentic knowledge as a natural process of psychological evolution. He examines in psychological detail the images and motifs of the five novels as having parallels in mythology and fairy tales; and he illustrates the process of becoming conscious with examples from his analytical practice and from life, viewed as unfolding images that lead toward integration.

Caring: How Can We Love One Another?, by Morton T. Kelsey. New York and Ramsey, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1981p (198 + ix, incl. 6-p. ref. notes).

Based on fourteen lectures given at the New Mexico Benedictine monastery retreat in 1974, this book by Kelsey aims to present an integration of both classical, orthodox Christianity and secular psychology--specifically the psychology of Jung, whom Kelsey considers, along with some of jung's followers, to have seen the "spiritual, divine implications of love." He discusses the topics of centrality of love; love and story; the theology of love; the fine art of loving ourselves; love and listening; lov?ng the family and those who love us; love, sex, and Christianity; learning about people and how to love them; loving the acquaintance; loving the enerny; loving the stranger; love and social action; and creativity of love.

The Death of a Woman, by Jane Wheelwright. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981; Venice, Calif.: Lapis Press, 1981 (287, ind. 11 -p. gloss., 2 illus., 2-p. intro. by von Franz).

Trained in Jung's depth psychology, Wheelwright records the analysis of a dying cancer patient during the last months of the woman's life, revealing the slow transformation which the psyche experiences when death is imminent. She interprets a series of the patient's life-enhancing dreams to illustrate how the unconscious prepares one for death and assists in making suffering bearable.

The Houses and Personality Development, by Karen Hamaker-Zontag. (Dutch: Aard en Achtergrond van de Huizen. Amsterdam: W. N. Schors, 198 1.) York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1988p (Jungian Symbolism and Astrology Series, 3) (189 + x, inc]. 3-p. bibl.).

Hamaker-Zontag, in the third of the series on jungian symbolism and astrology, deals with the relationship of personality development to the twelve houses of the horoscope. She presents numerous relationships and interpretations not generally mentioned in books of astrological meanings; and she analyzes the distinctive psychological meanings that the bouses have in their influence on human development and character. She covers the topics of the relationships of the houses and analytical psychology; symbolism of the houses; house interrelationships; planets in the bouses; and five interpreted combinations.

Make Friends with Your Shadow: How to Accept and Use Positively the Negative Side of Your Personality, by William A. Miller. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1981p (142 pp.).

Crediting Jung and his writings with providing valuable assistance in dealing with the dark and shadowy side of one's self, Miller provides from his own professional experiences of psychological counseling and his personal experiences with his shadow suggestions of how to accept and use in a positive way the negative side of one's personality. In addition to an introductory chapter on the shadow and personality development, he examines the relationship of shadow to myth, Jesus, innocence, St. Paul, projection, control, discovery, and wholeness.

Understanding the Mid-Life Crisis, by Peter O'Connor. Melbourne, Australia: Sun Books, 1981; New York and Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1988p (144 + viii, ind. 2-p. index, 5-p. ref. notes).

Recognizing as major sources of stimulus and reinforcement the writings of Jung and the poetry of Eliot, O'Connor writes about the midlife crisis from his own personal experience and from his experience in counseling. Starting with the observation that "others have been there before," he discusses the crisis in terms of the social context, the individual, the family, the occupational context, and marriage, concluding with an analysis of the Self and the anima and of ways of approaching the inner world.

The Vertical Labyrinth: Individuation in Jungian Psychology, by Aldo Carotenuto. (It.: Rome: Casa Editrice Astrolabio, 198 1.) Toronto: Inner City Books, 1985p (Studies in jungian Psychology by jungian Analysts, 20) (140, incl. 6-p. index, 7-p. ref. notes, 2-p. gloss. of jungian terms).

The context of Carotenuto's study is that the psychological development of an individual parallels the historical evolution of consciousness along a labyrinthine path as one searches for meaning and inner strength. He illustrates the process with a case that concerns the sufferings of a successful painter, augmented by the background of many other experiences from his analytical practice. Carotenuto discusses the profound inner discord one experiences if there is a discrepancy between outer existence and the inner dimension of being. Other topics include mythical unconscious; solitude and psychology; development of consciousness; psychic reality; destiny of great souls; creative relationships; death and rebirth; immense light; conscious discrimination; and human dignity.

Aging as a Spiritual journey, by Eugene C. Bianchi. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1982; 1984p (285, incl. 7- p. index, 14-p. ref. notes).

By noting close interplay between spiritual and Jungian perspectives, Bianchi establishes a general framework for the spirituality of aging, his basis being broadly Christian with occasional "excursions" into Judaism and oriental religions. His basic theme is the need for persons in mid-life to become more contemplative within the context of active, worldly endeavors. The first part of the book is devoted to the challenges of midlife (identity; world and work; intimacy) and potentials in mid-life (developing self; world and work; friendship and intimacy) as well as reflections on earlier years and mid-life (childhood and family influences; crisis, conversion, and life direction; mid-life transitions). He devotes the latter part of the book to "elderhood" with its challenges (to self; from the world; from immediate others) and with its potentials, along with reflections on elderhood and on confronting death and life after death.

Journey toward Wholeness: A Jungian Model of Adult Spiritual Growth , by Helen Thompson. New York and Ramsey, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1982p (108 + ix, incl. 2-p. bibl., 5 -p. ref. notes, 11 illus.).

Crediting Teilhard de Chardin, Jung, Evelyn Underhill, William Johnston, Erich Neumann, and Robert Ornstein as major resources, Thompson examines her five-year quest toward understanding human spirituality that grew out of her own midlife crisis. Beginning with the method of symbol (intuitive mode of consciousness) which precedes the method of science (rational analytical mode of consciousness), she suggests that this process reflects the basic pattern of the search for meaning in human life.

The Planets Within: Marsilio Ficino's Astrological Psychology, by Thomas Moore. Lewistown, Penn.: Bucknell U. Press, 1982; London and Toronto: Associated Universities Press, 1982 (Studies in jungian Thought) (227, incl. 5-p. index, 5-p. bibl., 9-p. ref. notes).

Treating Renaissance philosopher Ficino as if he were a living psychologist with something to say about the modern psyche, Moore characterizes Ficino's psychology as an expression in images rather than in logical, linear statements; and he credits Jung and Hillman as exemplars of such imaginative playing with psychological and symbolic matters. He uses Ficino's writings on astrology to provide a look at the "planets" within, not the planets of the night, focusing on the recovery of the soul and the well-tempered life.

Men Against Time: Nicolas Berdyaev, T.,. S. Eliot, Aldous Huxley, and C. G. Jung, by Douglas K. Wood. Lawrence, Kans.: U. Press of Kansas, 1982 (245 + x, ind. 3-p. index, 12-p. bibl., 27-p. ref. notes).

In tracing the early development of the twentieth-century revolt against time, Wood exemplifies the vigorous efforts of four remarkable anti-temporalists (Berdyaev, Eliot, Huxley, Jung) to move beyond history, time-philosophy, and progress by "re-creating" the concept of eternity from symbolic language. In the chapter (35 pp.) on "C. G. Jung and the Masks of God," he characterizes Jung's retreat-house at Bollingen as a protest against time by exploring the timeless dimension of the psyche. He also discusses the dualistic tendencies in jung's concept of the structure of the unconscious (which Wood labels "unconscious Platonism"), the mandala (as a unifying symbol), and Aion and synchronicity (circular historical process), citing jung's idea that the human psyche actually does touch on a form of existence outside time and space.

A Time to Mourn: Growing Through the Grief Process, by Verena Kast. (Ger.: Trauern: Phasen und Cbancen des psycbiscben Prozesses. Stuttgart: Kreuz Verlag, 1982.) Einsiedeln, Switzerland: Daimon Verlag, 1988p (156, incl. 5-p. bibl., 5-p. footnotes).

Confronted with the pressing importance of mourning in the therapeutic process, Kast spent ten years in her jungian analytic practice gathering material (particularly dreams) on the subject. She observes that in the treatment of many depressive illnesses the experience of loss has been mourned too little. She illustrates the way in which the unconscious prompts one to deal with mourning, moving from a discussion of the experience of a loved one dying to death and mourning as mirrored in a series of dreams. She examines dreams as guides during the four phases (denial; emotional chaos; search and separation; new relationship) of the process of mourning and then analyzes problems that develop when mourning is prolonged or repressed during each of the phases-especially unexpressed anger and guilt feelings in the phase of chaos. She concludes with discussions of symbiosis and individuation and of how to make a commitment to life while living with leave-taking.

Dreams of a Woman: An Analyst's Inner journey, by Sheila Moon. Boston: Sigo Press, 1983 +p (207 + xiii, ind. 13 illus., 2-p. foreword by Liliane Frey-Rohn).

In her quest for self-discovery and understanding of her own individuation process, Jungian analyst Moon traces the journeying of her inner life, the vast reaches of inner space, in an effort to encourage others that it is worthwhile to try to know one's Self. She reveals her inner psychological and religious journey of nearly fifty years and discusses 235 personal dreams (including dreams about Jung and Jungians), which she interprets in the context of her struggle to reconcile opposites (negative masculinity and timid femininity) in her psyche.

From Image to Likeness: A Jungian Path in the Gospel Journey, by W. Harold Grant, Magdala Thompson, and Thomas E. Clarke. New York and Ramsey, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1983p (249 + v).

In viewing human development as a journey from the image of God toward the likeness of God, the authors credit Jung with emphasizing the importance of the God-image and the Christ- image (the latter being considered a symbol of the Self). They define the goal of the individuation process as the disclosure and liberation of the Self and the fulfillment of human destiny. Based on their experiences of conducting retreats and workshops on "the gospel journey," they correlate Jungian psychological types (using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) with the ways in which different types pursue the journey toward wholeness. Appended is a classification of the development patterns of the different types for four periods between the ages of six and fifty.

In MidLife: A Jungian Perspective, by Murray Stein. Dallas: Spring Publications, 1983p (Seminar Series, 15) (149, incl. 3-p. bibl.).

Based on an eight-week seminar given at the Jung Center of Chicago in 1980, this work by Stein reflects on mid-life (transition, if relatively calm; crisis, if dramatic) in which formerly held ego- consciousness begins to experience stress or loss of meaning and neglected or repressed parts of the personality emerge--in some ways as a kind of second adolescence. Hermes, as the guide of souls through liminality (threshold situations), is evoked in chapters on the stages of burying the dead (loss of energy and desire); entry into transition; liminality and the soul; return of the repressed; the lure to soul-mating; steep descent (through the region of Hades); and the road to life after mid-life.

The Tarot: A Myth of Male Initiation, by Kenneth D. Newman. New York: C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1983p (152 + vii, incl. 4-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 26-p. ref. notes, 25 illus.).

Viewing the tarot as a living symbol and ultimately a mirror wherein each of us sees ourself as an expression of the psyche, like a myth, legend, or fairy tale, Newman relates the twenty-two Major Arcana (trumps) to psychic development. His psychological commentary, based on Jungian concepts, uses actual case histories to illustrate possible interpretations. In his analysis, Newman focuses on a man's psychology, though the tarot, like a fairy tale, can be interpreted from either a masculine or feminine point of view.

The Astrology of Fate, by Liz Greene. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1984p; London: Allen & Unwin, 1984; London: Mandala Books/ljnwin, rev. 1985p (370, incl. 10-p. index, 5-p. ref. notes, 13-p. gloss. of mythological names, 23 diagrams, inci, 21 birth charts).

Recognizing that it is difficult to distinguish the concept of fate from Providence, karma, or natural law, Greene considers the terminology provided by psychology (hereditary disposition, patterns of conditioning, complexes, and archetypes) to be more attractive. Her examination of the concept of fate includes the study of myths, fairy tales, and zodiacal signs, as well as the idea of the daimon (guardian spirit) that guides an individual's pattern of development. Using case material from her jungian practice, she demonstrates the workings of fate in actual people's lives, demonstrating that it appears to be both psychic and physical, as well as personal and collective.

The Creation of Consciousness: Jung's Mytb for Modern Man, by Edward F. Edinger. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1984p (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 14) (120, ind. 6-p. index, 9 illus.).

Considering the creation of consciousness to be the purpose of human life, Edinger presents this new central myth discovered by Jung as giving meaning to the deepest questions of life. He uses the concepts of analytical psychology, mythology, alchemical texts, dreams, and religion to emphasize the need not only of becoming more conscious of each one's creative potential but of one's dark and destructive side as well. His psychological and theological interpretations of Jung's Answer to Job point toward a new psychological dispensation centered in experience rather than in law or faith, wherein the individual's relation to God is to the incarnated God-image, the Self, the transpersonal center of the psyche.

Friedrich Nietzsche: A Psychological Approach to His Life and Work, by Liliane Frey Rohn, edited by Robert Hinshaw and Lele Fischli. (Ger.: Friedrich Nietzsche im Spiegel seiner Werke. Zurich: Daimon Verlag, 1984.) Einsiedeln, Switzerland: Daimon Verlag, 1988p (305 +xx, incl. 7-p. indexes, 4-p. bibl., 1 illus., 2-p. pref. by Helmut Batz).

Believing that the tragedy of Nietzsche's life began when he started regarding himself as the archetype of the man-god, Frey-Rohn analyzes the effects of his revolutionary discoveries on his own life. She analyzes, from a Jungian point of view, the psychological factors that influenced his alternating conditions of intense loneliness and loss with self-glorification and hero worship.

Jesus' Answer to God, by Elizabeth Boyden Howes. San Francisco: Guild for Psychological Studies Publishing House, 1984* + p* (257 + xxii, inc]. 23-p. indexes, 9 illus.).

Basing her approach on the idea that Jesus of Nazareth lived his own inner myth with an enthusiasm grounded in his relation to God and the inner world of the soul, Howes views this book as an interpretation of how a religiously committed ego can live the way of individuation. She incorporates Jung's understanding of the human psyche in her analysis of how Jesus articulated eternal archetypal patterns in his life and teachings. The title posits Jesus' involvement and interaction with God and the Self.

Myth and Today's Consciousness, by Ean Begg. London: Coventure, 1984p (112 + xi).

Begg's theme is that there is a new recognition of the importance of striving for consciousness, whereby individuals work with inner psychic potentialities and choose their own paths toward self-realization. He views the newly emerging polytheism as an inner pantheon of gods that represents archetypal modes leading to new ways of experiencing the world and one's self. His topics include the metamorphosis of the gods; the astrological pantheon; the world as proving ground of the soul; the many faces of consciousness; Herakles (champion of the self); a Gnostic alternative to orthodox belief; the fall of Sophia (a neo-Gnostic meditation); sex and individuation; Lilith; and Wotan.

Explorations into the Self, by Michael Fordham. London: Academic Press for the Society of Analytical Psychology, 1985 (The Library of Analytical Psychology, vol. 7) (235 + xiii, incl. 9-p. index, 7-p. bibl., 3-p. foreword by Kenneth Lambert).

Jung believed that more or less mature persons in the second half of life use the philosophical and religious concepts of the self as an inner guiding principle. Fordham contends that the same self can be recognized in childhood through integrative (primary state) and deintegrative (environmental interaction) processes. He analyzes ambiguities in Jung's definition of the Self and discusses the relationships of ego and Self by using clinical studies, consideration of countertransference in psychoanalytic work, defenses of the Self, and Jung's thesis about synchronicity, as well as Jungian views of body-mind relations. He concludes with reflections on religion ("Is God Supernatural?"), the mysticism of St. John of the Cross, and alchemy.

Individuation and Narcissism: The Psycbology of the Self in Jung and Kohut, by Mario Jacoby. (Ger.: Individuation und Narzissmus: Psychologie des Selbst bei C. G. Jung und H. Kobut. Munich: J. Pfeiffer Verlag, 1985.) London and New York: Routledge, 1990 (267 + xi, inc]. 5-p. index, 9-p. bibl., 4-p. ref, notes).

Aiming to question certain postulates of psychoanalysis and of Jung's analytical psychology on the subiect of narcissism, Jacoby examines their empirical basis and their experiential reality. Following his introduction to the myth of Narcissus from a Jungian perspective, he examines in detail Freud's essay on narcissism (1914) and then discusses the ego and self in analytical psychology (Jung, Neumann, Fordham) and in psychoanalysis (mainly Kohut) by comparing various concepts. He discusses the individuation process and maturation of the narcissistic libido, examining not only Jung's concepts (as postulated by Kohut) but also positions taken by Winnicott. He concludes with a discussion of the forms of narcissistic disturbances in the psyche and psychotherapeutic treatment of narcissistic personality disorders.

The Journeying Self. The Gospel of Mark through a Jungian Perspective, by Diarmuid McGann. New York and Ramsey, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1985p (224 + vi, incl. 25-p. ref. notes).

In using the analytical psychology of Jung to relate his own inner journey to the structure and movement of the gospel of Mark, McGann views life's journey as a story of self in the process of individuation. From McGann's point of view, Mark's story depicts Jesus moving through "stages" such as the good news, the desert, the call through conflict, the shadow, the feminine, blindness and sight, transfiguration, the temple, Gethsemani, the passion, and -beyond the empty tomb." He relates the story of self to his own experiences, drawing on the inspiration of four main "teachers"--his family of origin, a seminary professor, Teilhard de Chardin, and college professors and fellow psychology students.

King Saul, the Tragic Hero: A Study in Individuation, by John A. Sanford. New York and Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1985p (144 + vi, incl. 7-p. index).

In his psychological study of Saul as the potential hero who failed, Sanford points out that one may learn more from failures and the mistakes of others than from successes. Sanford applies a broad background of both biblical scholarship and Jungian depth psychology in analyzing the first king of Israel with his fears and self-deception, his plots and strivings. The author describes Saul's rise and decline and ultimate transformation through dream interpretation in which he faces his egocentricity at his death. Appended is a fourteen-page analysis of depth psychology with emphasis on individuation using both Jung's and Kunkel's ideas.

My Self, My Many Selves, by J. W. T. Redfearn. London: Academic Press for the Society of Analytical Psychology, 1985 (The Library of Analytical Psychology, vol. 6) (142 + xiv, incl. 6-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 2-p. foreword by Rosemary Gordon).

As reflected in the title, one of the main aims of Redfearn's book is to point out the numerous sub-personalities within one's total personality that represent an attempt to balance possible roles, a kind of migratory nature of the sense of "I" He discusses the various terminologies of ego and self in psychoanalysis and devotes a chapter to theJungian Self, as well as a chapter on personal religious experiences at different ages (God and myself; God as myself). He also examines the topics of the omnipotent "P' and the realistic "I"; the body and body-image and the Self; the location of the feeling of "I"; sub-personalities (archetypes and complexes); the winning of conscious choice (the emergence of symbolic activity); and boundaries and mandalas.

The Radiant Child, by Thomas Armstrong. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books/Theosophical Publishing House, 1985p (203 + viii, incl. 9-p. index, 10-p. ref. notes, 4 illus.).

In addition to well-known characteristics of childhood, such as emotional expressiveness, spontaneity, and imagination, Armstrong suggests that childhood represents a storehouse of extraordinary experiences, a hidden side that needs to be acknowledged in the ways that children may be raised and educated. He calls this hidden line of development the growth of the child from the spirit down, and he recognizes in its potential the child's initial connection with the collective unconscious and the Self which gives direction and coherence to psychic growth. He presents many different instances of non-ordinary childhood experiences, drawing upon child psychology, mythology, metaphysics, comparative religion, anthropology, philosophy, and literature.

The Bible and the Psyche: Individuation Symbolism in the Old Testament, by Edward F. Edinger. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1986p (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 24) (172, inci. 7-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 6 illus.).

In presenting the theme that the Old Testament is a treasury of the symbols of individuation, Edinger relates the dialogue between human beings and God to Jung's psychological concept of the encounter between the ego and the Self. He employs the new insights of depth psychology to understand Old Testament images of numinous, or divinely awesome, encounters in terms of the process of self- realization or progressive relation to the Self, the central archetype in the psyche. He interprets and amplifies these interrelationships from the creation through the patriarchs, the exodus and theophany in the wilderness, the prophets and kings and exile te, the emergence of the feminine (divine wisdom) and the messiah (the Self realized).

From Jung to Jesus: Myth and Consciousness in the New Testament, by Gerald H. Slusser. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1986p (170 + viii, incl. 8-p. index, 7p. ref. notes).

Within the context of understanding human nature in a religious perspective and within the framework of viewing the nature of human understanding as essentially mythic as well as rational, Slusser believes that Jung's basic ideas are meaningful for the present. In his fundamental thesis, he focuses on the archetype of the hero (emphasizing that the hero's journey is applicable to both men and women) and he considers the story of Jesus to be of central importance. He analyzes the hero's birth story, the meaning of the birth of the hero, departure and initiation, battle with the dragon, and the sacred marriage of the hero.

The Hero Within: Six Arcbetypes to Live By, by Carol S. Pearson. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986p (176 + xxiv, inci. 4-p. ref. notes).

Utilizing insights of "post-jungians" James Hillman and Joseph Campbell and sources other than archetypal psychology such as developmental psychology (Perry, Kohlberg, Gilligan), feminist theory, process therapy, and the New Age movement, Pearson explores both female and male life-journey patterns, emphasizing basic similarities as well as differences. She presents six archetypes that are important to the hero's "journey" of individuation. These "fundamentally friendly" archetypes are the Innocent (complete trust), the Orphan (longing for safety), the Martyr (self-sacrifice), the Wanderer (exploring), the Warrior (competing), and the Magician (authenticity and wholeness), all of which evolve through phases and stages that are more circular and spiral than linear.

Inner Work: Using Dreams and Active Imagination for Personal Growth, by Robert A. Johnson. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986; 1989p (222, incl. 1-p. bibl.).

Johnson discusses dreams in relation to Jung's model of the unconscious, the evolution of consciousness, the ego in the midst of the unconscious, the inner life, the process of individuation, seeking the unconscious, alternative realities of the world of dreaming, the realm of imagination, archetypes and the unconscious, conflict and unification, inner work through dreams, and active imagination techniques. He provides four-step approaches to dream work (association, dynamics, interpretation, rituals) and to active imagination (invitation, dialogue, values, rituals) that can help in the effort to integrate one's ego and the unconscious and work toward wholeness.

The Christian Archetype: A Jungian Commentary on the Life of Christ, by Edward F. Edinger. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1987p (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 28) (143, incl. 4-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 34 illus.).

Aiming to present jung's interpretation of the Christian myth, Edinger analyzes the incarnation myth of the life of Christ as the process of individuation. He summarizes the drama of the archetypal life of Christ that describes in symbolic images the events of the conscious life, representing the vicissitudes of the Self as it undergoes incarnation in an individual ego. His psychological commentary includes an examination of thirty images that cover the incarnation cycle in thirteen essential stages from the Annunciation to Pentecost (involving the same image of descent of the Holy Ghost at the beginning and at the end), as well as a discussion of the Virgin Mary's assumption and coronation.

The Development of the Personality, by Liz Greene and Howard Sasportas. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987p; York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1987p (Seminars in Psychological Astrology, vol. 1) (319 + xiv, incl. 2-p. bibl., 8 birth chart illus.).

Combining astrology and analytical psychology, Greene and Sasportas discuss the problem of the meaning of life which is often at the root of the myriad problems that drive people to see a psychotherapist or an astrologer. In dealing with the mystery of the human psyche and the overall meaning of an individual's life journey, they present the topics of the stages of childhood; parental marriage in the horoscope; subpersonalities and psychological conflicts; and puer (youth) and senex (old age) complexes.

Ecstasy: Understanding the Psychology of Joy, by Robert A. Johnson. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987; 1989p (100 + xii, incl. 2-p. ref. notes).

Using jung's concept of archetypes and drawing on the worlds of psychology and mythology, Johnson explores the meaning of the Dionysian archetype of ecstasy. He offers ways of reclaiming and expressing true joy that, unlike the ephemeral state of "happiness," has a lasting value which nourishes and sustains spirit as well as body. He emphasizes that repression of the archetype has led to the emergence of that psychic energy in negative forms, including drug and alcohol abuse, sexual repression, violence, racial hatred, and terrorism, which are antithetical to original Dionysian principles.

Eros and Pathos: Shades of Love and Suffering, by Aldo Carotenuto. (1t.: Eros e pathos: margini dell'amore e della sofferenza. Milan, 1987.) Toronto: Inner City Books, 1989p (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 50) (141, incl. 4-p. index).

Having become familiar with love and suffering ("life's two most overwhelming emotional experiences") during many years of Jungian analytic practice, Carotenuto discusses love and hate, pain, creativity, power, and the need to balance one's outer life with knowledge of one's inner world. His topics include the evocation of images; the basis of emptiness; the secret of seduction; the sacredness of the body; suffering for the other; self-knowledge and eroticism; fear of loss and jealousy; betrayal and abandonment; solitude and creativity; suffering and humiliation; the desire for power; staying aware; and hidden truth.

Feeling, Imagination, and the Self. Transformations of the Mother-Infant Relationship, by William Willeford. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern U. Press, 1987 + p (467 + xi, incl. 19-p. index, 2 1-p. ref. notes, 9 illus.).

The title of this work derives from Shakespeare's drama The Winter's Tale, in which Queen Hermione's waiting-woman takes the queen's baby from prison to King Leontes, whose insane jealousy has caused him to accuse the queen of adultery, in order to appeal to his "feeling, imagination and self." Although the king is unwilling to free the queen, it is the action of the appeal that provides the theme for Willeford's book in which he explores the implications of the waiting--woman's sound psychological understanding. He deals with feeling and the self and their effect on the ego by drawing on his experience in the fields of analytical and archetypal psychology.

Jungian Symbolism in Astrology: Letters from an Astrologer, by Alice 0. Howell. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books/Theosophical Publishing House, 1987p (219 + xxvi, incl. 5 p. bibl., 3-p. foreword by Sylvia Brinton Perera).

Using the format of writing letters to a dear friend, who also is a Jungian psychotherapist, Howell shows the deep connection between jung's archetypal processes in the psyche and the planetary processes in a person's bitth chart. Her underlying theme is the connection of astrology to the spiritual dimension and the value of symbolic language as a key to leading a symbolic life. In this context she examines the meaning of the birth chart and its use in the process of jungian analysis.

Old Age, by Helen M. Luke. New York: Parabola Books, 1987 + p*(Society for the Study of Myth and Tradition) (112 + x, incl. intro. by Barbara Mowat, Folger Shakespeare Library).

Reflecting upon the insights of Jung and using images from familiar literary texts, Luke reveals psychological meanings in the works of Homer (the Odyssey), Shakespeare (King Lear; The Tempest) and Eliot ("Little Gidding"). She analyzes the inner journey of the phase of life leading into old age, drawing upon her own experiences of the transition. She points out that individuals choose how they enter into their last years and how they approach death.

Other Lives, Other Selves: A jungian Psychotherapist Discovers Past Lives, by Roger J. Woolger. New York: Dolphin Books/Doubleday, 1987; Toronto and New York: Bantam Books, 1988p (386 + xx, incl. 14-p. index, 6-p. bibl., 1 0- p. ref. notes, 6-p. gloss., 3-p. foreword by Ronald Wong Jae, Association of Transpersonal Psychology).

Maintaining as his foundation Jung's concepts of the complex and archetype, Woolger proposes a third term, "past life complex," to describe the ancient doctrines of karma and reincarnation in a psychological way for modern individuals. He cites his own experience of personal and professional evolution from Jungian analyst toJungian past life therapist, and he states that his goal is to put past life work in the broader perspective of spiritual development and jung's concept of individuation.

The Stone Speaks: The Memoir of a Personal Transformation, by Maud Oakes. Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1987 +p*(148 + xxv, incl. 4-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 4-p. ref. notes, 28 illus., 3-p. foreword by William McGuire, 10-p. intro. by Joseph L. Henderson).

In the story of individuation and of her personal transformation, anthropologist-artist Oakes focuses on the large stone that Jung had just finished carving when she visited his retreat house at Bollingen in 1951. Her search for inner meaning has included meditations on the symbolism of the richly and mysteriously carved stone, the interpretation of dreams through jungian analysis, and active imagination with Hermes as guide to the unconscious where she learned to experience the archetypes. She amplifies the symbolism of jung's stone in order to illustrate the principle that health is the product of inner change.

Synchronicity: The Bridge Between Matter and Mind, by F. David Peat. New York: New Age Books/Bantam Books, 1987p (245 + ix, ind. 4-p. index, end-chapter notes, 14 illus.).

Peat developed an interest in Jung and the idea of the collective unconscious while working with physicist David Bohm. Receiving encouragement from Arthur Koestler, Arnold Mindell, and Marie-Louise von Franz, he began to pursue the notion of synchronicity, positing the thesis that synchronicity provides a starting point for building a bridge between interior and exterior worlds of reality. Such a bridge spans the worlds of mind and matter, of physics and psyche, whose patterns he examines; and he pursues the notion that synchronicities provide a glimpse beyond connotations of time and causality into the immense patterns oi nature.

Archetypes of the Zodiac, by Kathleen Burt. St. Paul: Llewellyn Publications, 1988p (Llewellyn Modern Astrology Library) (544 + xx, incl. 21-p. bibl., 8-p. gloss., 27 illus.).

Presented first as a workshop series during 1982-85, this work by Burt explores the archetypal energies in the horoscope ("the most personal tool we have for individual growth") in order to integrate them. She experiments with the "higher" energy of the esoteric ruler (subjective reality) of each of the twelve signs of the zodiac as well as the energy of the mundane ruler (objective reality) which most people express instinctively (unconsciously) every day in their striving for inner equilibrium. She presents the zodiacal signs as representing searches for a separate identity (Aries), value and meaning (Taurus), variety (Gemmi), the mother goddess (Cancer), being and wholeness (Leo), meaningful service (Virgo), one's soul mate (Libra), transformation (Scorpio), wisdom (Sagittarius), dharma (Capricorn), the Holy Grail (Aquarius), and the castle of peace (Pisces).

By Way of Pain: A Passage into Self, by Sukie Colegrave. Rochester, Vt.: Park Street Press/Inner Tradition, 1988p (160 + xv).

Told through the interweaving of fiction and psychological discussion drawn from her own life and the lives of people she bas known and worked with in her therapeutic practice, Colegrave's book examines the passages of change which characterize the healing journey that leads from suffering to a place of serenity that does not deny body and earth but instead includes and celebrates them. She views the task of psychotherapy as exchanging neurotic suffering for real suffering, which is explored for its possibilities of psychological acceptance, integration, and transformation. Expressing indebtedness to the ideas and practice of jungian analysis, she discusses the journey ("passage") under the topics of images of the soul; the marriage of heaven and earth; the birth of the Self; dying; a longer life; and growing out of pain.

Dynamics of the Unconscious, by Liz Greene and Howard Sasportas. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1988p (Seminars in Psychological Astrology, vol. 2) (363 + xi, incl. 3-p. bibl., 9 birth charts).

Unconscious dynamics of the adult personality are discussed in four seminars that deal particularly with its darker dimensions, the areas that remain hidden in the unconscious and are generally unacceptable to consciousness, even though they may embody much of an individual's best potential. Sasportas presents the astrology and psychology of aggression, both destructively blind aggression and affirmative autonomy and individuality; and he examines the quest for the sublime as the experience of meaning and of finding the Higher Self. Greene analyzes depression as the other side of aggression and as part of a process that can lead to fuller expression of life, showing how depression reveals itself astrologically; and she interprets alchemical symbolism in the horoscope through stages of psychological and spiritual development.

The Footprints of God: The Relationship of Astrology, C. G. Jung, and the Gospels by Luella Sibbald. San Francisco: Guild for Psychological Studies Publishing House, 1988p (167 + viii).

Based on her experience of Jungian analysis and her interest in astrology and training with Jung's daughter, astrologer Gret Baumann, Sibbald interconnects the factors of astrology, Jung, and the Gospels. Starting with an overall view of astrology (cosmic evolution in the meaning of the new age), she then analyzes the significance of the Great Year of the Zodiac (approximately 25,800 terrestrial years), followed by discussions of the first month of the Great Year (Piscean Age) and the second month (Aquarian Age), into which the earth is now moving. She examines Jesus as Aquarian man, though he was born at the beginning of the Piscean Age, and reflects that so many things Jung talked about carry the same essence of truth as did many of jesus' statements. She ends with the value of the astrological chart and how she uses it in therapy.

The Hero journey in Dreams, by Jean Dalby Clift and Wallace B. Clift. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1988 (214 + xi, incl. 8-p. index, 8-p. ref. notes).

Integrating their studies of Jung's psychology and seminary studies of spiritual growth, the Clifts interpret life's journey for both men and women as a complex drama of the hero story. Dreams are used to illustrate various motifs of the journey such as the call to adventure, crossing the threshold, rites of passage, and return. The authors also discuss dreams and suicide, a monk's dream, a nun's dream, and prayer and active imagination.

Journeying Within Transcendence: A Jungian Perspective on the Gospel of John, by Diarmuid McGann. New York and Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1988p (217 + iv, incl. 18-p. ref. notes).

Drawing heavily on Jung's work, as he did in his earlier (1985) Jungian perspective on the Gospel of Mark, McGann reads his own story "in and through the story of Jesus" as presented in the Gospel of John. He examines metaphors and symbols in the gospel story by interpreting such opposites as secular and sacred, bondage and freedom, blindness and sight, death and life, humiliation and exaltation. These, he states, summon him to prayer, meditation, and "living within the transcendent" in relating his own life that of Jesus.

Jungian Birth Charts: How to Interpret the Horoscope Using jungian Psychology, by Arthur Dione. Wellingborough: Aquarian Press/Thorsons, 1988p (Aquarian Astrology Handbook) (144, inci. 4-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 5 illus.).

With joint goals of teaching astrology students how to use Jungian symbols in horoscope interpretation and of helping others to explore the deeper realms of the individual birth chart, Dione aims to demonstrate that depth psychology and astrology complement one another and ought to be used together in analyzing charts. He discusses the topics of the elements in astrology as related to psychological type; the zodiac; planetary archetypes; the aspects; dynamics of psychic energy; and Jungian chart interpretation. Appended are a summary of basic astrology, a glossary of astrological terms, and a glossary of jungian terminology.

A Little Book on the Human Shadow, by Robert Bly, edited by William Booth. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988'p (81 pp.).

The poet Robert Bly recounts his own relationship to the shadow, the dark side of one's personality, as well as those of writers Stevenson, Conrad, and Jung, adding some of his own ideas through poetry, storytelling, and psychological commentary. He describes the shadow as "the long bag we drag behind us" which contains parts of oneself of which parent or society does not approve, he then presents five stages in the process of exiling, hunting, and retrieving the shadow, a quest undertaken in order to change one's life.

The Self in Early Childhood, by Joel Ryce-Menuhin. London: Free Association Books, 1988" +p; New York: Columbia U. Press, 1988 (273 + xii, inci. 5-p. index, 17-p. bibl., Il illus.).

Using Jung's work to define self psychology and his own experience as Jungian analyst and sandplay therapist, Ryce- Menuhin develops a new model of the self-ego in infancy. He examines at length the contributions of Jung and the neo-Junglans to self psychology, analyzing the Jungian background, Jung's theories of the self, and Fordham's deintegration concept. He also explores the contributions of Freud and neo-Freudians and contributions by Winnicott and Kohut toward the self concept. He discusses autism in terms of the childhood self in disorder and in the relationship of self and physiology, using sandplay clinical material as illustrations.

The Shadow Side of Community and the Growth of the Self, by Mary Wolff-Salin. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1988 (188 + xvi, incl, 8-p. ref. notes).

Drawing on her own and other people's experiences rather than on reading and research, Wolff-Salin reflects on community living (including marriages and families), particularly in terms of their problems. She presents first a study of the religious community, looking specifically at the shadow side as evidenced in the pain, conflict, and brokenness that arise from the effects of power, anger, fear, and withdrawal. In her study of other forms of community she considers marriage, tribal structures, and a therapeutic community. Using a Jungian approach to explore the meaning of individuation and the shadow, Wolff-Salin's goal is to promote greater integration and growth of the self and of the community.

Solitude: A Return to the Self, by Anthony Storr. (UK: The School of Genius. London: Andre Deutsch, 1988.) New York: Free Press/Macmillan, 1988; New York: Ballantine/Random House, 1989p (216 + xv, incl. 15-p. index, 8-p. ref. notes).

Storr discusses how diverse factors such as childhood, inherited gifts and capacities, and temperament influence whether individuals predominantly turn toward others or toward solitude to find meaning in their lives. He focuses upon the significance of human relationships, the capacity to be alone, the uses of solitude, the effects of enforced solitude, solitude and temperament, separation, isolation and the growth of imagination, bereavement, and depression.

The Survival Papers: Anatomy of a Midlife Crisis, by Daryl Sharp. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1988p (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 35) (159, incl. 6 p. index, 6 illus.).

The author takes jung's view that symptoms such as conflict and depression associated with psychological problems in midlife are really attempts at self-cure. Sharp sees such manifestations as evidence of a basically healthy psyche trying to find a proper balance. He presents, as an example, the case of a man's midlife breakdown and his first year in Jungian analysis. In viewing the crisis as an opportunity for his patient to consider a new level of awareness that could lead to a conscious individuation process, he discusses such topics as neurosis; midlife crisis and individuation; purpose of a midlife crisis; adaptation and breakdown; self regulation of the psyche; the hero's Journey; reality as we know it; and the transcendent function.

Dear Gladys: The Survival Papers, Book 2, by Daryl Sharp. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1989p (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 37) (141, inc]. 3-p. index, 2 illus.).

In this sequel to the anatomy of a midlife crisis in The Survival Papers, Sharp continues with the case study of a man in his second year of Jungian analysis, during which "he found his feet and lived to writhe again." His lively account of the analysis is interspersed with psychological commentary about the ongoing struggle between consciousness and the unconscious, projections, complexes, and archetypal motifs. Sharp also reflects on experiences from his own life.

Journey into Consciousness: The Chakras, Tantra, and Jungian Psycbology, by Charles Breaux. York Beach, Maine: Nicolas-Hays, 1989p (254 + xviii, ind. 6-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 6-p. gloss., 37 illus.).

Wanting to lay a foundation for a practical psychological understanding of the chakras, Breaux elaborates on the historical and philosophical context of Tantra and shows how complementary it and Jungian psychology are. In both systems, human consciousness is transformed by the progressive awakening of various dimensions of the psyche. After an introduction to Tantric roots and relevance to Jungian psychology (12 pp.), he interprets the path of the physical-psychological-spirituaI continuum from the root chakra (unconscious grounding with the life force in the body) up through the six other chakras, seen as progressive stages in the evolution of the psyche. He suggests a way that the Tantric method may be integrated with Western approaches for the development and healing of body-mind.

Jung the Philosopher: Essays in Jungian Thought, by Marian Pauson. New York and Bern: Peter Lang Publishers, 1989 (New Studies in Aesthetics, vol. 3) (235 + xiii, ind. 8 p. index, 19-p. bibl., end-chapter ref. notes, 10 illus,).

Noting that Jung the psychotherapist is well known but that Jung the philosopher is not, and stating that all psychologies are rooted in philosophical presuppositions as all philosophies likewise are grounded in psychological orientations, Pauson presents Jung's point of view with regard to the enduring philosophical questions. She begins with Jung's philosophic mentors and then examines his views on the basis of knowledge, the impact of human consciousness on the dynamics of the world (including synchronicity), human creation in art and life, the problem of evil, the roots of symbolic forms, Jung's typology and its educational implications, and education for the second half of life. She ends with a discussion of going beyond the rational (Jung and mystics) and an analysis of the stages in the creative process ("The Seven Days of Creation").

The Unfolding Self: Separation and Individuation, by Mara Sidoli. Boston: Sigo Press, 1989 + p (203 + xiii, incl. 9-p. index, 5-p. bibl., end-chapter bibl. ref., 2 illus., 2 p. preface by Michael Fordham).

Combining her more traditional Jungian training in child analysis with her exposure to Kleinian and Freudian theory and praxis, Sidoli offers a means of empirically validating jung's theories about the self and the archetypes. She presents a picture of the unfolding self in various patients at various ages. Following an introduction to the self in infancy, she illustrates by clinical examples the topics of separation (the growing child moving away from mother, both physically and intrapsychically); the unconscious negative mother-baby relationship (developing into the child's magic archetypal world); jealousy and sibling rivalry, and their roots; the shame of being a baby (feelings of inadequacy); the value of regression in child analysis; disorders of the self; the "abandoned child" theme; and separation in adolescence (how the deintegrative -reintegrative process unfolds).

Was C. G. Jung a Mystic? and Other Essays, by Aniela jaff?. Einsiedeln, Switzerland: Daimon Verlag, 1989p*(119 + viii, inci. 2-p. foreword by Robert Hinshaw).

Spanning a period of about forty years, these four essays provide varied insights from Jaff?'s long years of association with Jung. Appearing for the first time is the title essay of the book, in which she states that an analogy between mysticism and Jungian psychology in no way denies its scientific basis since numinous experiences of images do enter into consciousness from unconscious reality. Her 1950 essay on the romantic period in Germany is translated from her book on images and symbols in Hoffmann's fairy tale "The Golden Pot." Her 1974 Eranos Conference paper on the individuation of mankind interprets jung's ideas of the collective consciousness as a gradual religious psychological transformation unfolding of the image of God. The 1985 essay on transcendence deals with conversations with Jung about post-mortal existence.

After the End of Time: Revelation and the Growth of Consciousness, by RobinRobertson. Virginia Beach, Va.: Inner Vision, 1990p (254, incl. 3-p. bibl.).

Robertson's reading of the Book of Revelation as a symbolic description of the transition to a higher level of consciousness leads to an analysis of the symbolic language of dreams and visions, as well as myths and fairy tales. Among the topics examined are the nature of oracles, Jung's Answer to Job, man and God, creation myths, Armageddon and the millennium, the nature of evil, and the new Jerusalem.

The Gilgamesh Epic, by Rivkah Kluger. Einsiedeln, Switzerland: Daimon Verlag, forthcoming in 1990.

Jungian Synchronicity in Astrological Signs and Ages, by Alice 0. Howell.Wheaton, Ill.: Theosophical Publishing House, forthcoming in 1990p.

Jung's Self Psychology, by Polly Young-Eisendrath and James A. Hall. New York: Guilford Press, 1990 (250 pp.).

The Rainbow Serpent: Bridge to Consciousness, by Robert L. Gardner. Toronto:Inner City Books, 1990p (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 45) (127, incl. 4-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 13 illus.).

Drawing on aboriginal myth, Gardner explores the basis for a neurotic split in which the Australian white and black communities each represent the unknown or shadow side that is repressed by the other.In addition to investigating the myth of the Wawilak women, he discusses the making of a Wuradjeri medicine man as an example of the integration by one person of opposing psychological principles of the two cultures, which he interprets as a process of individuation.

Reclaiming the Inner Child, edited by Jeremiah Abrams. Los Angeles: Jeremy P.Tarcher, 1990p (323 + xi, incl. 4-p. bibl., 9-p. ref. notes).

Intending to give "the best, most readable, inspiring material available" on the compelling and timely subject of the inner child, Abrams presents thirty-seven selections ranging widely from psychology to other disciplines. He divides the collection of articles or excerpts from books into six parts, namely, the promise of the inner child; the abandoned child; eternal youth and narcissism; the wounded child within; recovering the child; and the future of parenting. Contributions by Jungian analysts or therapists are Joel Covitz, "Narcissism: The Disturbance of Our Time"; Gilda Frantz, "Birth's Cruel Secret," on abandonment; James Hillman, "Abandoning the Child"; Helen Luke, "The Little Prince"; Rose-Emily Rothenberg, "The Orphan Archetype"; Jeffery Satinover, "The Childhood Self and Origins of Puer Psychology"; Susanne Short, "The Whispering of the Walls"; June Singer, "The Motif of the Divine Child"; Robert M. Stein, "On Incest and Child Abuse" and "Redeeming the Inner Child in Marriage and in Therapy"; Marie-Louise von Franz, "Puer Aeternus"; and Marion Woodman, "The Soul Child." Also included is an excerpt from Jung's essay on "The Psychology of the Child Archetype." Editor Abrams provides an introduction on the inner child and introductions for each article.